100 Events That Changed the World

100 Events That Changed the World

  1. Agriculture invented in the area of the Fertile Crescent, ca. 8000 B.C.
  2. First civilization (Sumer) emerges, ca. 4000 B.C.
  3. Great Pyramid of Khufu built at Gizah, ca. 2680 B.C.
  4. Indo-Europeans invade Europe (present-day Iran), ca. 2000 B.C.
  5. Code of Hammurabi codified (Babylonia), ca. 1790 B.C.
  6. Phoenicians develop alphabet, ca. 1400 B.C.
  7. Hebrews depart Egypt in Exodus (Sinai), ca. 1300 B.C.
  8. Iron Age begins (Anatolia), ca. 1000 B.C.
  9. Homer compiles Iliad in Ionia, ca. 800 B.C.
  10. Jerusalem falls, Babylonian exile begins, 586 B.C.
  11. Basic Old Testament canon completed in Jerusalem, ca. 500 B.C.
  12. Greeks repel Persians (Battle of Marathon), 480 B.C.
  13. Greek Golden Age flourishes in Athens, ca. 480-430 B.C.
  14. Greek philosophy develops (with Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle), 469-322 B.C.
  15. Alexander the Great expands his empire to Bactria in Afghanistan, 336-323 B.C.
  16. Rome destroys Carthage, 146 B.C.
  17. Julius Caesar comes to power in Rome, 45-44 B.C.
  18. Octavian ends Roman civil wars, begins Principate in Rome, 31 B.C.
  19. The trial of Jesus, in which the spiritual message of this religious leader was immortalized and would lead to one of the world’s greatest world faiths, 36 B.C.
  20. Battle of Mulvian Bridge occurs, Constantine ends Christian persecution in the Balkans, 312
  21. Constantine accepts Christianity, moves Roman capital to Constantinople , 330
  22. Last Western Roman emperor deposed (Rome), 476
  23. Muhammad’s Hijra Islamic community at Medina, 622
  24. Charles Martel defeats Muslims in Tours, France, 733
  25. Charlemagne crowned emperor in Rome, 800
  26. Norse cross Atlantic to Vinland (Nova Scotia) ca. 1000
  27. Orthodox and Catholic churches (Eastern and Western) split between Rome and Constantinople, 1054
  28. Normans conquer England at Battle of Hastings, 1066
  29. Pope Urban II calls for First Crusade (Clermont-Ferand, France), 1095
  30. King John signs Magna Carta at Runnymede, 1215
  31. Mongols withdraw from the West, 1242
  32. Marco Polo publishes account of his travels (Venice), 1292
  33. Papacy’s Babylonian Captivity forges on in Avignon, France, 1305-1377
  34. Black Death arrives in western Europe (Messina, Sicily), 1347
  35. Ottomans capture Constantinople, 1453
  36. Moveable type first used in printing at Mainz, ca. 1455
  37. Columbus’ discovery of the New World, which ushered in a profound era of exploration and conquest that would revolutionize the economic and political balance of Europe and lead to the creation of the United States of America, 1492
  38. Vasco da Gama sails to India, 1498
  39. Slave trade begins in Americas at Santo Domingo, 1505
  40. Niccolò Machiavelli writes The Prince in Florence, 1513
  41. Luther posts his 95 Theses at Wittenberg, 1517
  42. Cortés conquers Mexico, Tenochtitlan (Mexico City), 1521
  43. Magellan dies on voyage around world (Philippines), 1522
  44. Copernicus publishes De revolutionibus Wittenberg, 1543
  45. Council of Trent convenes, 1545-1563
  46. Europeans discover uses for potatoes, 1573
  47. Spanish Armada defeated in the English Channel, 1588
  48. William Shakespeare writes Hamlet in London, 1601
  49. Dutch East India Company enters Spice Island trade (Indonesia), 1602
  50. English settlers establish Jamestown (Virginia), 1607
  51. Galileo observes the moons of Jupiter from Florence, 1610
  52. Thirty Years’ War ends with Peace of Westphalia, 1648
  53. King Charles I executed, 1649
  54. Newton publishes Principia mathematica in London, 1687
  55. The Battle of Vienna, which pitted the Ottoman Turks against the Holy Roman Empire and laid the groundwork for today’s tensions between East and West, 1683
  56. The Glorious Revolution occurs at Torbay, England, 1688
  57. Newcomen invents steam engine in Staffordshire, England, 1712
  58. Peace of Utrecht ends War of the Spanish Succession, 1713-1714
  59. Table of Ranks introduced by Peter the Great, St. Petersburg, 1722
  60. British defeat French at Quebec, Canada, 1759
  61. Industrial Revolution begins in England, 1760
  62. James Watt invents steam engine in Glasgow, England, 1775
  63. Americans declare independence from Britain (Philadelphia), 1776
  64. French Revolution begins in Paris, 1789
  65. British abolish slave trade at Guyana, 1807
  66. Napoleon retreats from Moscow, 1812
  67. Napoleon defeated at Waterloo, Belgium, 1815
  68. Spain loses American empire at Bolivia, 1825
  69. Great Reform Bill passed in London, 1832
  70. Britain wins Opium War at Nanking, China, 1842
  71. European uprisings occur, 1848
  72. Charles Darwin publishes On the Origin of Species from London, 1859
  73. The Battle of Gettysburg would turn the tide in favor of the Union and the freedoms it sought to preserve, 1863
  74. 1867 South African diamonds discovered
  75. 1867 Russia sells Alaska to United States
  76. 1868 Meiji Restoration modernizes Japan
  77. 1869 Suez Canal opens
  78. 1870 Prussians defeat France, establish Germany
  79. 1885 European powers partition Africa
  80. 1905 Japanese defeat Russian fleet in Tsushima Straits
  81. 1905 Albert Einstein publishes his theory of relativity from Bern, Switzerland
  82. 1907 Pablo Picasso paints Les Desmoiselles d’Avignon in Paris
  83. 1914 Archduke Ferdinand assassinated in Sarajevo, leads to World War I
  84. 1917 Bolshevik Revolution defeats Imperial reign at St. Petersburg
  85. 1929 Stock market crashes, Depression begins
  86. 1939 World War II starts
  87. 1941 Japan attacks Pearl Harbor
  88. 1945 Nazism defeated in Berlin
  89. 1945 Atomic bombs fall on cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan
  90. 1947 India gains independence from Britain in New Delhi
  91. 1947 Transistor invented at Murray Hill, New Jersey
  92. 1948 Israel declares independence, achieves statehood
  93. 1949 Communists win in China (Beijing)
  94. 1949 Computer age begins
  95. 1957 Soviets launch Sputnik
  96. 1962 Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring
  97. 1975 United States loses Vietnam conflict
  98. 1989 Berlin Wall falls
  99. 1991 Soviet Union dissolves in Moscow
  100. 1994 White rule (apartheid) ends in South Africa
Written by The UnNovelist
The Unnovelist