List of English Irregular Verbs

List of English Irregular Verbs

In this list of irregular verbs, the citation form (the infinitive) comes first, together with the present tense forms when they are different, then the simple past, and finally the past participle. The right hand column notes whether they are weak or strong and whether they belong to a subclass, and links to discussions elsewhere. Typical irregularities in weak verbs are the assimilation of dentals (bendedbent) and vowel reduction (*keepedkept).

It should be noted that many of these verbs are irregular in British or American English only; in many cases, such as spell (spelt vs. spelled), learn (learnt vs. learned), and spill (spilt vs. spilled), American English uses the regular form, while British English tends to favor the irregular. In other cases, the opposite is true (dived and sneaked in Britain, also dove and snuck in the U.S.); Australian English tends to follow British practice, while Canadian English often sides with American usage. See further at American and British English differences. [edit for German]

Verb Forms  

abide abided/abode abided/abidden

overlie overlay overlain

arise arose arisen

overpay overpaid overpaid

awake awoke awoken

override overrode overridden

be (am, is, are) was (were) been

overrun overran overrun

bear bore born/borne

oversee oversaw overseen

beat beat beaten/beat

oversell oversold oversold

become became become

overset overset overset

befall befell befallen

overshoot overshot overshot/overshotten

beget begot begotten

oversleep overslept/overslep overslept/oversleepen

begin began begun

overtake overtook overtaken

behold beheld beheld/beholden

overthrow overthrew overthrown

bend bent bent

partake partook partaken

bequeath bequeathed/bequoth bequeathed/bequoth/bequeathen

pay paid paid

bereave bereaved/bereft bereaved/bereft

plead pleaded/pled pleaded/pled

beseech besought besought

proofread proofread proofread

beset beset beset

prove proved/prove proved/proven

bet bet/betted bet/betted

put put put

bid (in cards, auctions, etc.) bid bid

queath or quethe quoth quoth/quethen

bid (meaning to request or say) bade/bid/bidded bidden/bid/bidded

quit quit quit

bide bided/bode bided/bidden

read read read

bind bound bound/bounden

reave reft reft

bite bit bitten

rebuild rebuilt rebuilt

bleed bled bled

recast recast recast

blow blew blown

rend rent rent

break broke broken

redo redid redone

breed bred bred

re-lay re-laid re-laid

bring brought brought

remake remade remade

broadcast broadcast broadcast

repay repaid repaid

browbeat browbeat browbeaten

rerun reran rerun

build built built

resell resold resold

burn burned/burnt burnt/burned

reset reset reset

burst burst/bursted/borst burst/bursted/bursten

rethink rethought rethought

buy bought bought

rewind rewound rewound/rewounden

can could/couth couth

rewrite rewrote rewritten

carve carved/corve carved/carven

rid rid/ridded rid/ridden/ridded

cast cast cast

ride rode ridden

catch caught caught

ring rang rung

chide chode/chided/chid chidden/chided

rise rose risen

choose chose chosen

rive rived/rove rived/riven

cleave(split apart) clove/clave cloven/claven

run ran run

clepe clept/cleped clept/cleped

saw sawed sawed/sawn

cleave(cling to) cleft/cleaved cleft/cleaved

sake sook saken

climb climbed/clomb climbed/clomben

say said said

cling clang/clung clung

see saw seen

clothe clothed/clad clothed/clad

seek sought sought

come came come

seethe seethed/sod seethed/sodden

cost cost cost

sell sold sold

creep crept/crep crept/cropen

send sent sent

crow crew/crowed crown/crowed

set set set

cut cut cut

sew sewed sewed/sewn

deal dealt dealt

shake shook shaken

delve delved/dolve dolven/delved

shall should

dig dug dug

shape shaped/shope shaped/shapen

dive dived/dove dived/doven

shave shove/shaved shaven/shaved

do did done

shear shore/sheared shorn/sheared

drag drug/dragged drug/dragged/draggen

shed shed/shedded shed/shedded/shedden

draw drew drawn

shine shined/shone shined/shone

dream dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed

shit shit/shat/shitted shit/shat/shitted/shitten

drink drank/drunk drunk/drunken

shite shit/shat shit/shat/shitten

drive drove driven

shoe shoed/shod shoed/shod

dwell dwelt/dwelled dwelt/dwelled

shoot shot shot/shotten

eat ate eaten

shove shoved/shove shoved/shoven

fall fell fallen

show showed/shew shown/showed

fare fared/fore fared/faren

shrink shrank/shrunk shrunk/shrunken

feed fed fed

shrive shrove shriven

feel felt felt

shut shut shut

fight fought fought/foughten

sing sang sung

find found found/founden

sink sank/sunk sunk/sunken

fit fit/fitted fit/fitted

sit sat sat/set/sitten

flee fled/flew fled/flown

slay slew/slayed slain/slayed

fling flang/flung flung

sleep slept slept

fly flew flown

slide slid slid/slidden

fold folded/feld folded/folden

sling slang/slung slung

forbid forbade/forbid forbidden

slink slank/slunk slunk

forecast forecast forecast

slit or slite slit slit/slitten

forego forewent foregone

smell smelled/smelt smelled/smelt

forgo forwent forgone

smite smote/smit smitten

foresee foresaw foreseen

sneak sneaked/snuck sneaked/snuck

foretell foretold foretold

sow sowed/sew sowed/sown

forget forgot forgotten

speak spoke spoken

forgive forgave forgiven

speed sped/speeded sped/speeded

forsake forsook forsaken

spell spelled/spelt spelled/spelt

freeze froze/frore frozen/froren

spend spent spent

fret fret/fretted fret/fretted/fretten

spill spilled/spilt spilled/spilt

get got gotten/got

spin span/spun spun

gird girt/girded girt/girded

spit spit/spat spit/spitten

give gave given

split split split

glide glid/glided glidden/glid/glided

spoil spoiled/spoilt spoiled/spoilt

go went gone

spread spread spread

grave grove/graved graven/graved

spring sprang/sprung sprung

grind ground/grinded ground/grounden/grinded

stand stood stood/standen

grow grew grown

starve starved starved/starven/storven

hang hung/hanged hung/hanged

steal stole stolen

have had had

stick stuck stuck

hear heard heard

sting stang/stung stung

help helped/holp helped/holpen

stink stank/stunk stunk

hew hew/hewed hewn

strew strew/strewed strewn/strewed

hide hid hid/hidden

stride strode/strided stridden/strided

hit hit hit

strike struck stricken/struck

hold held held/holden

string strang/strung strung

hurt hurt hurt

strive strove/strived striven/strived

input input input

swear swore sworn

inset inset inset

sweep swept/swep swept/swopen

interbreed interbred interbred

swell swelled/swoll swelled/swollen

interweave interwove interwoven

swelt swolt/swelted swolten/swelted

keep kept kept

swike swiked/swoke swiked/swicken

kneel knelt/kneeled kneltkneeled

swim swam swum

knit knit/knitted knit/knitted

swing swang/swung swung

know knew known

swink swank/swonk swonken

lade laded laden/laded

take took taken

lay laid laid

teach taught taught

lead led led

tear tore torn

lean leaned/leant leaned/leant

tell told told

leap leaped/leapt/lope leaped/leapt/lopen

think thought thought

learn learned/learnt learned/learnt

thrive throve/thrived thriven/thrived

leave left left

throw threw thrown

load loaded loaded/loaden

thrust thrusted/thrust thrusted/thrust

lose or lese lost/lore lost/lorn

tread trod trodden/trod

lend lent lent

unbind unbound unbound/unbounden

let(allow) let let/letten

undergo underwent undergone

lie (but not talking untruthfully) lay lain

underlie underlay underlain

light lit/lighted lit/lighted

understand understood understood/understanden

make made made

undertake undertook undertaken

may might

underwrite underwrote underwritten

mean meant meant

undo undid undone

meet met met

unwind unwound unwound/unwounden

melt melted/molt melted/molten

uphold upheld upheld/upholden

mete meted/mate/met meted/meten

upset upset/upsetted upset/upsetted

mishear misheard misheard

wake woke woken

mislay mislaid mislaid

wax waxed/wex waxed/waxen

mislead misled misled

waylay waylaid waylaid

misread misread misread

wear wore worn

misspell misspelled/misspelt

weave wove/ woven/

mistake mistook mistaken

wed wed/wedded

misunderstand misunderstood

weep wept/ wept

mow mowed/mew mowed/mown

wend wended/went wended/went

nim nimmed/nam nimmed/num

wet wet/wetted wet/wetted

outbid outbid outbid

will would/willed willed

outdo outdid outdone

win won won

outgrow outgrew outgrown

wind wound wound/wounden

outrun outran outrun

wot wist wist

outsell outsold outsold

withdraw withdrew withdrawn

overcast overcast overcast

withhold withheld withheld/withholden

overcome overcame overcome

withstand withstood withstood/withstanden

overdo overdid overdone

work worked/wrought worked/wrought

overdraw overdrew overdrawn

worth worth worth/worthen

overeat overate overeaten

wreak wreaked/wroke wreaked/wroken

overhang overhung/overhanged overhung/overhanged

wring wrang/wrung wrung

overhear overheard overheard

write wrote/writ written

overlay overlaid overlaid

writhe writhed/wrothe wrihed/writhen

yield yielded/yold yielded/yolden

Additional note: These verbs in the list are spelled the same in the simple past as in the present tense (excluding compounds such as set, beset, inset, upset etc.): beat, bet, burst, cast, cost, cut, hit, hurt, let, put, quit, read, rid, set, shed, shut, slit, split, spread. (Note that of all the preceding, only “read” is pronounced differently in the past than in the present.)

Written by The UnNovelist
The Unnovelist