Prefixes & Suffixes A-D

Prefixes & Suffixes: E – J

Root

Meanings

 

Sample Words and Definitions

e

out, away

 

eloquent – speaking beautifully and forcefully; emissary – a representative of a country or group sent on a mission; eject – throw out forcefully.
 

ego

self

 

egoistic – self-centered; alter ego – a higher aspect of oneself; egomania – excessive preoccupation with oneself.

em, en

into, cover with, cause

 

empathy – intention to feel like another person; empower – put into power; engorge – make larger.

endo

within, inside

 

endotherm – a creature that can keep its inside temperature fairly constant; endocrine – relating to glands that secrete directly into the blood or lymph; endogamy – the custom to marry within one’s clan, tribe etc.

enn/i, anni

years

 

bicentennial – of or relating to an age or period of 200 years; centennial – of or relating to an age or period of 100 years;  perennial -lasting through many years.

en, in

inside, inwards

 

envision – to picture in the mind; enclose – lock inside; inwards – towards the inside.

ep/i

on, upon, over,
among, at, after,
to, outside 

 

epidemic – the rapid spread of something negative; epilogue – a short speech delivered after a play; epicenter – the center of an earthquake.

equ/i

equal, equally

 

equidistant –  an equal distance from two points; equanimity – calm temperament, evenness of temper; equation – a statement of equality.

erg/o

work

 

ergonomics – study of the working environment; energy – the power to accomplish work; energetics – science that looks at energy and its transformation.

esth/aesth

feeling, sensation, beauty

 

esthetician – someone who beautifies; aesthetic – pertaining to a sense of beauty; kinesthesia – the sensation of bodily movement.

ethno

race, people

 

ethnic – pertaining to a defined group of people; ethnocentric – focusing on the ethnicity of people; ethnology – the science of people and races.

eu

good, well

 

euphemism – replacing an offensive word with an inoffensive one; euphonious – having a pleasant sound; euphoria – feeling of well-being.

ex

from, out,

 

excavate – to dig out; exhale – to breathe out; extract – to pull out.

extra, extro

outside, beyond

 

extraordinary – beyond ordinary; extraterrestrial – outside the Earth; extrovert – an outgoing person.

fac/t

make, do

 

artifact – an object made by a person; factory – a place where things are made; malefact – a person who does wrong.

fer

bear, bring, carry

 

confer – to bring an honor to someone; ferry – a boat that carries passengers; transfer – to move to another place.

fid

faith

 

confide – place trust in someone, fidelity – faithfulness; fiduciary – a trustee;

fix

fasten

 

affix

flect

bend

 

deflect – to bend course because of hitting something; inflection – a bending in the voice’s tone or pitch; flexible – easily  bending.

flor/a,
fleur

flower

 

florist – someone working with flowers; floral – flowerlike; flora – the plant life of a particular time or area

for

completely (used to intensify
the meaning of a word)

 

forsaken or forfeited – completely lost; forgiven – completely given (a release of debt).

fore

in front of, previous, earlier

 

forebear – ancestor; forebode – to give an advance warning of something bad; forecast – a preview of events to be.

fract, frag

break

 

fracture – a break; fragile – easy to break; fragment or fraction – a part or element of a larger whole; 

fug

flee, run away, escape

 

fugitive – a person who is running away; refuge – a sheltered place to flee to; refugee – a person seeking protection

funct

perform, work

 

defunct – no longer working or alive; function – to work or perform a role normally; malfunction – to fail to work correctly.

fus

pour

 

confusion – being flooded with too much information that is hard to make sense of; fuse – to melt by heating; infuse – to put into.

gastr/o

stomach

 

gastric – pertaining to the stomach; gastronomy – serving the stomach by providing good food; gastritis – inflammation of the stomach.

gen/o/e/
genesis

birth, production,
formation, kind

 

genealogy – the study of the history of a family; generation – all the people born at approximately the same time; genetic -relating to heredity encoded in the genes.

geo

earth, soil, global

 

geography – study of the earth’s surface; geology – study of the structure of the earth; geoponics – soil based agriculture.

ger

old age

 

geriatrics – medicine pertaining to the elderly; gerontocracy – the rule of the elders; gerontology – the science of aging.

giga

a billion

 

gigabyte – unit of computer storage space; gigahertz – unit of frequency (one billion Hz/sec); gigawatt unit of electric power (one billion watts).

gon

angle

 

decagon – a polygon with 10 angles; diagonal – a slanting line running across a space; octagon – a geometrical figure with 8 angles.

gram

letter, written

 

diagram – a simple drawing; grammar – rules of how to write words in sentences; telegram – a message sent by telegraph.

graph/y

writing, recording, written

 

Graphology – the study of handwritings; autograph – written with one’s own hand; seismograph – a machine noting strength and duration of earthquakes.

grat

pleasing

 

gratify – to please someone; grateful – feeling thankful;  gratuity – a tip, token of appreciation.

gyn/o/e

woman, female

 

gynecology – the science of female reproductive health; gynephobia – fear of women; gynecoid – resembling a woman.

gress, grad/e/i

to step, to go

 

digression – a departure from the main issue, subject, etc.; progress – movement forward or onward; gradual – step by step.

hect/o, hecat

hundred

 

 hectoliter – 100 liters; hectare – metric unit equaling 100 ares or 10,000 square meters; hectometer – 100 meters.

helic/o

spiral, circular

 

helicopter – an aircraft with horizontal rotating wing; helix – a spiral form; helicon – a circular tuba.

heli/o

sun

 

heliotropism – movement or growth in relating to the sun; heliograph – apparatus used to send message with the help of sunlight; helianthus – genus of plants including sunflowers.

hemi

half, partial

 

hemicycle – a semicircular structure; hemisphere – one half of the earth; hemistich – half a line of poetry.

hem/o/a

blood

 

hemorrhage – clotting of the blood; hemorrhoids – swelling of the blood vessels; hemoglobin – red blood particle.

hepa

liver

 

hepatitis – inflammation of the liver; hepatoma – a tumor of the liver; hepatotoxic – toxic and damaging to the liver.

hept/a

seven

 

heptagon – a shape with seven angles and seven sides; Heptateuch – the first seven books of the Old Testament; heptameter – a line of verse consisting of seven metrical feet.

herbi

grass, plant

 

herbicide – any chemical used to kill unwanted plants, etc.; herbivorous – plant-eating; herbal – relating to plants.

hetero

different, other

 

heterogeneous – made up of unrelated parts; heteronyms – words with same spelling but different meanings; heterodox – not conforming to traditional beliefs.

hex/a

six

 

hexagon – a shape with six angles/sides; hexameter – a verse measured in six; hexapod – having six legs.

histo

tissue

 

histology – study of the microscopic structure of tissues; histochemistry – study of the chemical constitution of cells and tissues.

homo,
homeo

like, alike, same

 

homogeneous – of the same nature or kind; homonym – sounding alike; homeopath – a therapy that is based on treating "same with same"

hydr/o

liquid, water

 

hydrate – to add water to; hydrophobia – intense fear of water; hydroponics – growing plants in liquid nutrient solution; hydraulic – operated by force created by a liquid.

hygr/o

moisture, humidity

 

hygrometer – tool used to measure humidity; hygrograph – instrument for recording variations in atmospheric humidity.

hyper

too much, over,
excessive, beyond

 

hyperactive – very restless; hypercritical – too critical; hypertension – above normal pressure.

hyp/o

under

 

hypoglycemia – an abnormally low level of sugar in the blood; hypothermia – abnormally low body temperature; hypothesis – a theory that is unproven but used under the assumption that it is true.

iatr/o

medical care

 

geriatrics – medical care of the elderly; pediatrician – a doctor who treats children; podiatry – medical care for feet.

icon/o

image

 

icon – an (often religious) image, in modern usage a simplified graphic of high symbolic content; iconology – science of symbols and icons; iconoclast – someone who destroys religious images and traditional beliefs.

idio

peculiar, personal, distinct

 

idiomatic – Peculiar to a particular language; idiosyncracy – a physical or mental characteristic typical or a particular person;  idiot – someone who is distinctly foolish or stupid.

il, in 

in, into

 

illuminate – to give light to; innovation – a new idea, method, or device; inspection – the act of examining or reviewing.

ig, il, im,
in, ir

not, without

 

illegal – not legal; impossible – not possible; inappropriate – not appropriate; irresponsible – not responsible.

imag

likeness

 

image – a likeness of someone; imaginative – able to think up new ideas or images; imagine – to form a picture or likeness in the mind.

infra

beneath, below

 

infrastructure – underlying framework of a system; infrared – below the regular light spectrum.

inter

between, among, jointly

 

international – involving two or more countries; intersection – place where roads come together; intercept – to stop or interrupt the course of.

intra,
intro

within, inside

 

intrastate – existing in one state; intravenous – inside or into a vein; introvert – shy person who keeps within him/herself.

ir

not

 

irredeemable – not redeemable; irreformable – not reformable; irrational – not rational.

iso

equal

 

isobar – a line on a map connecting points of equal barometric pressure; isometric – having equality of measure; isothermal – having equal or constant temperature.

ject

throw

 

eject – to throw someone/something out; interject – to throw a remark into a discussion; project – to cast or throw something.

jud

law

 

judgment – a decision of a court of law; judicial – having to do with judges or courts of law; judiciary – a system of courts of law.

junct

join

 

conjunction – a word that joins parts of sentences; disjunction – a disconnection; junction – a place where two things join.

jury/ just

law

 

jury

juven

young

 

juvenile – youthful or childish; rejuvenate – to bring back to youthful strength or appearance.

Written by The UnNovelist
The Unnovelist