paleontology – study of ancient fossils; paleography – the study of ancient forms of writing; Paleolithic – period of the Stone Age.
all, any, everyone
panacea – a cure for all diseases or problems; panorama – an all-around view; pantheism – the worship of all gods; pandemic – affecting all.
beside, beyond, abnormal,
parasite – an organism that lives on and off another living being; parallel – alongside and always an equal distance apart; paragraph – a portion of a writtenn document that presents a distinct idea.
parachute – protection from falling; parasol – an umbrella used to protect from the sun;
paternal – relating to fathers; paternity – fatherhood; patriarch – a man who rules a group.
antipathy – a feeling of great dislike; apathy – a lack of feeling or interest; empathy – ability to understand another’s feelings.
pedal – a lever pushed by the foot; pedestrian – one who walks; pedicure – cosmetic treatment of feet and toes.
compel – to force someone to act; expel – to drive someone out of a place; repel – to force back.
pentagon – shape having 5 angles and 5 sides, pentagram – a five-pointed star formerly used as a symbolic figure in magic; pentathlon – an athletic contest that includes five events.
dyspepsia – abnormal digestion; peptic – aiding digestion; pepsin – a digestive enzyme.
permanent – lasting throughout all time; permeate – to spread throughout; persist – to continue for a long time; perennial – lasting through many years.
periodontal – pertaining to bone and tissue around a tooth; peripheral – lying outside of the center; perimeter – the outer boundary of an area.
esophagus – muscular tube that carries food to the stomach; anthropophagy or sarcophagy – cannibalism; xylophagous – feeding on wood.
philanthropist – one who loves humanity; philology – the love of words; philosophy – the love of wisdom; bibliophil – loving books.
cacophony – loud, unpleasant sounds; microphone – a device that records and amplifies sound; phonetic – relating to human speech sounds.
photogenic – caused by light; photograph – image made on light-sensitive film; photon – the smallest possible unit of light.
chlorophyll – a group of green pigments found in leaves; phyllotaxis – the arrangement of leaves on a stem; phyllite – a rock that forms sheets, similar to slate.
nature, medicine, the body
physical – relating to the body; physician – a doctor; physique – nature and shape of one’s body.
plant, to grow
epiphyte – a plant growing independently on the surface of another; hydrophyte – a plant that grows only in water; neophyte – a beginner, especially a person recently converted to a new belief.
to form, development,
protoplasm – something that is the first made or formed, also the living portion of a cell; plastic – able to be formed, especially when warm; plaster – a mixture of lime, sand and water that forms a smooth solid covering for walls.
breathing, lung, air, spirit
pneumonia – inflammation of the lungs; pneumatic – using the force of air; dyspnea – difficulty breathing.
podiatrist – a doctor for the feet; podium – a small platform to stand on; tripod – a stand or frame with 3 legs.
metropolis – a large city; police – people who work for the government to maintain order in a city; politics – actions of a government or political party.
many, more than one
polychrome – with many colors; polyglot – a person fluent in many languages; polygon – shape with 3 or more straight sides.
opponent – a person who places him/herself against an action, idea, etc.; postpone – to put off doing something.
popular – appealing to a lot of people; population – all of the people who live in a particular area; populist – a supporter of the rights of people.
export – to carry goods out of a place to another; portable – able to be carried; porter – a person who carries luggage.
deposit – to place or drop something; expose to place out into the open for all to see; position – the place where someone is.
posthumous – after someone’s death; postpone – to delay something; postscript – an addition to an already completed document.
earlier, before, in front of
preamble – a part in front of a formal document; prepare – to get ready in advance; prediction – a statement foretelling the future.
before, in front of,
prognosis – a prediction of what will happen; prologue – a passage before the main part; prophet – a person who foretells the future.
primitive, first, chief
prototype – the first of a kind; proton – on of the very basic parts of an atom; protocol – a first draft from which a document is prepared.
pseudonym – a fictitious name; pseudoscience – theories presumed without proof of a scientific nature; pseudopregnancy – a false pregnancy.
psyche – the human spirit or soul; psychic – relating to the human mind or someone who has supernatural mental abilities; psychology – the study of the mind.
pugnacious – having a quarrelsome or aggressive nature; repugnant – distasteful, offensive or revolting; pungent – piercing.
compulsion – a very strong urge; expulsion – to someone out; impulsive – having a spontaneous urge to do something.
purge – remove anything undesirable; purgatory – according to Roman Catholics a place where souls must clean themselves of sin; expurgate – remove objectionable passages from a publication.
computer – an electronic thinking device; dispute – to disagree with what another person thinks; input – contribution of one’s thinking.
pyrotechnics – the art of making fireworks; pyrometer – a thermometer for measuring high temperature; pyretic – relating to or producing fever.
quadrant – open space with buildings on 4 sides; quadrennium – period of 4 years; quadruped – a 4-footed animal.
quarter – one fourth; quart – a fourth of a gallon; quartet – a musical composition or group involving 4 voices or instruments.
quintett – a composition for 5 voices or instruments; quintessence – pure essence, based on the ancient philosophy that there was a fifth element that was present in all things; quintuple – fivefold.
eradicate – pull out at the roots; radical – fundamental, looking at things from a drastic point of view; radish – an edible root of the mustard family.
radioactive – emitting radiation; radiologist – someone diagnosing or treating via radiation.
ramification – the resulting consequence of a decision; ramify – to spread or branch out; ramus – a branchlike part.
again, back, backward
rebound -to spring back again; rewind – to wind something backward; reaction: a response; recognize: to identify someone or something seen before.
regent – a person who rules on behalf of a king or queen; regime – a government that rules; regulate – to apply a rule.
retroactive – relating to something in the past; retrogress – to go back to an earlier condition; retrospect – the remembering of past events.
rhinoceros – a species of animals with a big horn on the snout; rhinoplasty – surgery of the nose; rhinovirus – viruses that are causing the common cold.
rhododendron – a flower with red/pink flowers; rhodium – an element which produces a red solution; rhodopsin – a purple pigment in the retina that is needed for vision.
deride – to make fun of someone; ridicule – to make fun or mock; ridiculous – silly, causing laughter.
diarrhea – abnormally excessive bowl movement; hemorrhage – heavy blood flow; catarrh – inflammation of a mucous membrane, especially the nose and throat.
ruby – deep red color and a precious stone of the same color; rubella – measles; bilirubin – reddish pigment in bile.
bankrupt – unable to pay because you’re "broke"; interrupt – to break into a conversation or event, to disturb; rupture – a break in something.
sane – mentally healthy; sanitary – relating to cleanliness and health; sanitation – maintenance of public health and cleanliness.
ascend – to climb upward; crescendo – a climbing up of the volume of music; descend – to go or climb down.
conscience – sense of knowing right from wrong; conscious – knowing what is happening; omniscient – knowing everything.
arteriosclerosis – hardening of the arterial walls; multiple sclerosis – disease which causes the tissue of the brain and spinal cord to harden; sclerometer – instrument for measuring hardness.
see, examine, observe
microscope – a device used to see tiny things; periscope – a seeing instrument on a submarine; telescope – a device used to see over a distance.
inscribe – to write letters or words on a surface; scribe – a person who writes out documents; describe – to represent with words or pictures.
secede – to formally break away from; seclude – to keep away from; serum – a liquid isolated out of another.
dissect – to cut apart piece by piece; intersection – the place or point where two things cross each other; bisect – to cut into two equal parts.
of, for, or by itself
self-discipline – the ability to discipline yourself; self-respect – respect for yourself; selfish concerned only with your own interests.
semiannual – every half year; semicircle – half a circle; semiconscious – partly conscious; semiannual – every half of a year.
September – this used to be the seventh month in the Roman calendar; septet – a group of seven musicians; septuagenarian – a person in his/her seventies.
conserve – to save or keep something safe; preserve – to save something; reservation – a place kept for a person.
sextet or sextette – a composition or group of six, sextuple – sixfold; sexagenarian – person in his/her sixties.
desolate – lonely, dismal, gloomy; solitary – done alone, by yourself; solo – a performance done by one person alone.
solar – involving the sun; parasol – umbrella protecting from the sun; solarium – a room where one is exposed to sun light.
insomnia – inability to fall asleep; somniloquy – talking in your sleep; somnolent – feeling sleepy.
consonant – a speech sound; sonorous – producing loud, full, rich sounds; supersonic – faster than sound; unison – as one voice.
philosopher – a wise person; sophisticated – wise about the ways of the world; sophism – a clever but misleading argument.
circumspect – cautious, looking all around; retrospective – a looking back at past things; spectator – a person who sees an event.
biosphere – the whole round surface of the earth; hemisphere – half the earth spherically shaped like a ball.
inspire – to stimulate or animate; transpire – to give of vapor with waste product through the skin or a membrane; spirit – invisible life force.
stable – standing steady and firm; stagnant – standing still, not moving; stationary – at a standstill, fixed.
constellation – a group of stars that forms a pattern; interstellar – between the stars; stellar – relating to stars.
construct – to build; destruction – the act of destroying something that was built; structure – something built; infrastructure – underlying framework of a system.
under, lower than,
submarine – an underwater boat; submerge – to put underwater; substandard – inferior to accepted standards.
sum – the combined total of everything; summation – the total, highest amount; summit the highest point or top.
higher in quality
Super bowl – the final annual football game; superior – above average, better in quality; supersonic – faster than the speed of sound.
together, with, same
symmetry -similarity in size, form or arrangement; synergy – the combined effect; synchronize – to cause to occur at the same time.
contact – a state in which two things touch; tactile – relating to the sense of touch; tangible – able to be touched; intact – with nothing missing.
syntax – the systematic arrangement of words; taxonomy – the science of classification; ataxia – loss of the ability to coordinate muscle action.
technology – the practical application of knowledge; technocracy – rule of technology; technologically – characterized by technology.
far, distant, complete
telephone – a device to talk to a distant person; telescope – a device to view distant objects; television – a device to receive pictures from afar; telecommuting – working remotely, bridging the distance via virtual devices.
contemporary – existing at the same time; temporal – relating to time; temporary – lasting for a limited time.
determine – to find something out at the end of an investigation; terminate – to end; exterminate – to destroy or get rid of completely.
extraterrestrial – existing outside the earth; terrain – ground or land; territory – an area of land.
tetrapod – having 4 legs; tetrarchy – government by 4 rulers; tetrose – a monosaccharide with four carbon atoms.
monotheism – belief in one god; polytheism – worshiping more than one god; theology – the study of religion, god, etc.
thermal – relating to heat; thermos – an insulated jar that keeps heat in; thermostat – a device that controls heat.
contortion – a twisted shape or position; distort – to alter the shape or condition of; retort – reply in a manner that is supposed to change the effect of something previously said.
detoxification – the process of removing poisons; toxic – poisonous; toxicology – the study of poisons; intoxicated – influenced by drugs.
attract – to pull objects nearer; distract – to drag attention away from something; tractor – a motor vehicle that pulls things.
transcontinental – across the continent; transfer – to move from one place to another; transport – to carry something across a space.
three, once in every three,
triangle – a figure with 3 sides and 3 angles; triathlon – an athletic contest with 3 events; tricycle – a 3-wheeI vehicle with pedals.
beyond, extreme, more than
ultrahigh – extremely high; ultramodern – more modern than anything else; ultrasonic – sound waves beyond human hearing.
not,opposite of, lacking
unabridged – not shortened; unfair – opposite of fair; unfriendly – lacking friendliness.
unicycle – a vehicle with one wheel; unilateral – decided by only one person or nation; unique – the only one of its kind; unison – as one voice.
suburb – residential area on the edge of a city; urban – relating to a city; urbanology – the study of city life.
evacuate – to empty a dangerous place; vacant – empty, not occupied; vacation – a time without work.
circumvent – to go around or bypass restrictions; convention – a gathering or assembly of people with a common interest; intervene – to come between.
veracious – truthful, honest; veracity – the truth; verify – to make sure that something is true.
verbalize – to put into words; adverb – a word relating to a verb; proverb – a short saying that expresses a well-known truth.
reverse – to turn around; introvert – being turned towards the inside; version – a variation of an original; controversy – a conversation in which positions are turned against each other.
acting in place of,
vice-president – the person next in rank to the president
evident clearly seen
convince – to win someone over; invincible – not able to be conquered; victory – the conquest of an enemy.
vision – the ability to see; envision – to picture in the mind; evident – clearly visible.
revival – the act of bringing back to life; vital – pertaining to live; vivacious – high-spirited and full of life.
advocate – to speak in favor of; equivocate – to use misleading language that could be interpreted two different ways; vocalize – to produce with your voice.
benevolent – showing good will and kindness; volition – the act of making a choice or decision, voluntary – resulting from your own free will.
carnivorous – meat-eating; voracious – desiring or eating food in great quantities; devour – to eat quickly.
xenophobic – afraid of foreigners; xenogenesis – the creation of offspring that is completely different from either parent; xenophile – attracted to foreigners.
xerophyte – a plant that grows in dry climate; xerography – a dry photocopying process; xeric – requiring small amounts of moisture.
zoology – study of animals; zooid – resembling an animal; zooplankton – minute floating aquatic animals.
zygote – a cell formed by the union of two gametes and the organism developing from that; zygomorphic – pertaining to organisms that can be divided into symmetrical halves along one axis only.